Chapter 1: Henly Chapman Rutter, M.D., Alienist

by Gary Cordingley

from

Stories of Medicine from Athens County, Ohio

a multi-authored anthology compiled and edited by

Gary E. Cordingley, M.D., Ph.D.
Although Henly Chapman Rutter’s involvement with Athens and the Athens State Hospital was
relatively brief—spanning two separate tours of about one year each—telling his story provides
an opportunity to explore the Athens State Hospital in particular, and, more broadly, the late-
nineteenth-century world of public asylums. Rutter, like many other physicians involved with state
hospitals, rotated among multiple state facilities. Specializing mainly in the treatment of the
insane, these physicians were called “alienists” because they treated the misfits who were
alienated from society.

Dr. Rutter’s life was punctuated by singular events and ended with an exclamation mark.

Henly Chapman Rutter was born on February 6, 1849, in Pearisburg, Giles County, located in
southwestern Virginia. His father and eldest brother, both named John, were physicians.(1)
Henly and his family moved to Bellefontaine, Logan County, Ohio, in time for him to attend high
school there. Bellefontaine evidently felt like home to him, because that is where he later
gravitated while between jobs with state institutions.

Otherwise, not much is known of his boyhood, except that it didn’t last long. At the age of 15,
while the Civil War was being fought, he enlisted in the Union Army. In that conflict, soldiers
“mustered in” (formed military units) and “mustered out” (disbanded) in groups. In Rutter’s case,
as a private in Company B of the 132nd Ohio Infantry (National Guard), he mustered in at Camp
Chase on the western outskirts of Columbus, Ohio, on May 14–15, 1864. The 132nd Infantry
Regiment, under the command of Colonel Joel Haines, saw duty in Washington, D.C., and then
in Virginia, attached to the 2nd Brigade, 3rd Division, 10th Army Corps, Army of the James. The
regiment then mustered out in Columbus, Ohio, on September 10, 1864, after not quite four
months of service. Of the 846 men in Rutter’s regiment, two died in combat and 45 were lost to
disease.

Perhaps the fatal illnesses of his fellow soldiers made an impression on Rutter, because he soon
enrolled in the Medical College of Ohio in Cincinnati, from which he graduated with an M.D. in
1869. After completing an internship at Cincinnati’s Good Samaritan Hospital, he returned to
Bellefontaine, where the 1870 federal census showed him living with his mother “Lavina” and
working as a physician.

In 1871 he began a long career of service in public institutions by becoming an assistant
physician at the nearby Dayton Hospital for the Insane. The “assistant” designation sounds odd
to modern ears, but the custom at the time was to label all medical doctors on the asylum’s staff
as assistants to the superintendent.

Dayton was the first of three asylums in which Rutter worked that were constructed according to
the Kirkbride plan involving an imposing, central structure flanked by symmetric, long, cross-
ventilated wings in which the patients resided—males on one side and females on the other. But
to nineteenth-century alienists, the name “Kirkbride” meant much more than a floor plan. In fact,
the influence of Thomas Story Kirkbride extended to pretty much everything that was done at
asylums.

Thomas Story Kirkbride, M.D., was for many years the superintendent of the Pennsylvania
Hospital for the Insane on the outskirts of Philadelphia, and in 1844 was also a founding member
of the American Association of Medical Superintendents, which later became the American
Psychiatric Association. He was the leading advocate for a model of care in which the
superintendent was the principal physician for all inpatients, even when they numbered in the
hundreds. The role of the assistant physicians was to implement the superintendent’s treatment
plans. Moreover, the superintendent was the asylum’s chief executive officer in all other ways:
responsible for hiring, firing, contracting, balancing the budget, interacting with the public and
acting as the facility’s spokesman. In his duties he was often assisted by a “steward” whose
responsibilities pertained to “housekeeping,” broadly defined.

Apart from personally treating hundreds of patients, managing hundreds of employees and
interacting with the public, the superintendent of a state-owned asylum was also beholden to the
needs and whims of the state government, which often had quite a different vision of the     
asylum’s purpose, functioning and budget than that of the superintendent.

To say that the superintendent needed to have a rare combination of gifts and skills to
effectively carry out his responsibilities would be an understatement. Additionally complicating
the matter, the superintendent —at least in Ohio’s asylums—was a political appointee, generally
replaced by an appointee of the newly incumbent party each time state government shifted back
and forth between Republican and Democratic control.

Dr. Kirkbride was apparently able to juggle these various responsibilities effectively, and through
his example and influence, provided the model of how an asylum should function that prevailed
throughout most of the nation until the 1880s. Termed
moral treatment, his methods involved not
only the concept of one-man rule of the asylum, but also compassionate, respectful interactions
between staff and patients, the use of kindness and persuasion instead of physical restraint,
keeping patients occupied with activities including music and performances, and providing a
system of rewards in which good behavior might result in dining with the superintendent’s family
or moving to a more favorable ward occupied by higher-functioning patients.(2)

Thus, it is surprising that Dr. Rutter in his early twenties was elevated to the job of
superintendent at the Dayton asylum. He was apparently judged to be very capable, but also
might have been the right person in the right place at the right time. He held that position until
about 1874, and then returned to Bellefontaine.

This then, was Rutter’s background when in 1877 he was considered for the position of
superintendent of the Athens Hospital for the Insane.
The Athens Messenger of April 5, 1877,
broke the news: “The board of trustees of the Athens Hospital for the Insane, at their meeting on
Friday of last week, elected Dr. Rutter, of Bellefontaine, as medical superintendent. Dr. Rutter
was for several years connected with the Dayton Asylum, and is said to be thoroughly qualified
to discharge the duties of the position to which he has been elected. He will take charge of the
hospital this week.” In so doing, he became the asylum’s third superintendent.

Richard Gundry, M.D.,(3) had been the first superintendent and was appointed in 1872, two
years before the hospital was actually completed and opened. He retained the position until
December 1876, when he resigned in order to preside over the opening of the new State
Hospital for the Insane in Columbus.(4) He was subsequently forced out of that position when his
political affiliation did not match that of a newly elected governor, and he completed his
distinguished career in Maryland.

The second superintendent of the Athens Hospital for the Insane was Charles Leonard Wilson,
M.D.,(5) who was already well known in Athens County, having practiced in Albany before the
Civil War, and then, after service as a surgeon for the Union cause, working in Athens City as a
general practitioner until the early 1870s, when he moved to Indianapolis. Appointed by the
trustees of the Athens hospital in January 1877, Wilson got caught in a blistering crossfire of
statewide, partisan politicking, ostensibly about his non-resident status, the end result of which
was that he was already on his way back to Indianapolis in March 1877 after having been barely
sworn in.

Thus, Rutter’s professional credentials, his Ohio residency and his Republican Party affiliation all
boded well for his appointment as superintendent of the Athens facility, the second building of
Kirkbride design at which he worked. Despite this common design, the Athens Hospital—
constructed in a High Victorian or Second Empire style—looked nothing like the Italianate-styled
Dayton Hospital.

Rutter’s Republican Party affiliation also agreed with that of
The Athens Messenger. During
Rutter’s first term as superintendent of the Athens Hospital,
The Athens Messenger had
consistently nice things to say about him. For example, in describing the “Fourth of July at the
Asylum” in the issue of July 12, 1877:

"In the brief article in our issue of last week, referring to the local events that characterized the
celebration of the preceding day, more extended mention was due to the very agreeable manner
in which the day was recognized at the Athens Hospital for the Insane. In the afternoon, seats
arranged in the pleasant grove on an elevation immediately west of the hospital building were
occupied by a large number of the inmates of the institution together with several invited guests
from Athens... Following the [formal ceremonies] all present joined in eagerly discussing the
palate tickling and profusely provided collation prepared under the adept and generous
supervision of Steward Hamblin. An attractive display of fireworks in the evening in which a large,
elaborate and very beautiful national symbol prominently figured, was the fitting finale of the
joyously celebrated anniversary of our Nation’s birth.

"It is opportune in this connection to mention the evident efficiency which, in every regard, marks
the present government of the Athens Hospital for the Insane. Dr. Rutter, the superintendent,
and his several official subordinates could not, it is plain, be animated by a greater degree of
zeal in the discharge of their arduous and responsible duties. More perfect order and efficient
management in every department than is here observable could not be attained; for which
creditable and praiseworthy discharge of their duties, Dr. Rutter and his assistants are in an
especial sense deserving the thanks of the people of the state who humanely support this noble
monument of benevolence."

True to the Kirkbride model, Dr. Rutter promoted the cultural engagement of his patients, as
described by an
Athens Messenger article dated November 22, 1877: “Dr. Rutter,
superintendent of the Hospital for the Insane at this place, who is ever on the
qui vive [alert] to
utilize every occurring opportunity to advantageously administer to ‘the minds diseased’ under
his official charge, invited the troupe of Tennesseeans, who remained over in Athens on
Sunday, to appear and sing before the patients assembled in the chapel of that institution, on
Sunday afternoon, which they did much to the evident gratification of their auditors.”

But by spring of 1878, the political winds had shifted, and the Democratic Party took control of
state government. In this context, Rutter resigned and professionally relocated to Cincinnati, and
was succeeded in the superintendency by Pleasant Henry Clarke, M.D., of Middleport. Of
course,
The Athens Messenger was outraged, reporting in its May 2, 1878, issue on the “Doings
of the new hospital board”:

"That one of the most important of public institutions, which annually costs the tax payers of the
state such vast sums to maintain, and the proper medical treatment and physical care of whose
hundreds of unfortunate inmates demands the most skillful and experienced charge, should thus
lightly [be] bandied about as a mere political spoil, ought to render audible the indignant
denunciation of every honorable citizen… Dr. H.C. Rutter…was exceptionally well qualified for his
position…

"He is superseded by Dr. P.H. Clarke, a young physician of Middleport, but one year a resident
of Ohio, a large portion of which time he is said to have served the public as a dentist and
druggist’s clerk. His qualifications for the approved discharge of the duties and responsibilities
pertaining to the superintendency of the Athens Hospital for the Insane will be understood when
it is stated that before accompanying a member of the board here last Friday as an applicant for
the position of assistant physician in the institution, he never before saw the inside of an insane
asylum in all his life."

Some of the newspaper’s reservations were indeed borne out by subsequent events. During his
tenure, Clarke was accused of abusing alcohol and opium, and while these accusations may or
may not have been true, it is clear that events and personnel spun out of the young doctor’s
control and he was forced to resign, replaced in May 1879 by another Democratic appointee,
William Henry Holden, M.D., of Zanesville.
The Athens Messenger was less caustic in its
assessments of Dr. Holden, perhaps because he was an older and more seasoned physician,
and even the Republican
Zanesville Courier credited him as being an exemplary man and good
citizen.(6)

But
The Messenger’s relief was palpable when control of state government again shifted hands
and Rutter was brought back. Its May 13, 1880, article was titled simply, “Welcome back”:

"The reappointment of Dr. H.C. Rutter to his former place at head of the Athens Hospital for the
Insane gives universal satisfaction, and very particularly to our own immediate community who
were not only eye witnesses of the eminent fitness evinced by Dr. R. for the efficient and
beneficent management of the institution, but who likewise duly estimated the important addition
to the social life of Athens, which his own and Mrs. Rutter’s residence among us contributed. The
new superintendent and matron will enter upon the discharge of their respective official duties in
the hospital on the 20th."

This was the first local mention of Dr. Rutter’s wife, Mattie B. Miller Rutter, who was shown in the
1880 federal census as an Ohio-born woman four years younger than her 31-year-old husband.
Little information is available concerning Mattie, except that she was the daughter of a prominent
navy man, and even her year of birth is uncertain, eventually showing up on her Bellefontaine
tombstone as the same as her husband’s. But the newspaper’s comment about the “official
duties” of the “matron” reflected the “first lady” status of the superintendent’s wife. She was
expected to show herself at official functions and otherwise contribute to the smooth functioning
of the institution.

Upon Dr. Rutter’s reappointment,
The Athens Messenger (May 27, 1880) expressed one
disapproving note. It didn’t like the fact that he restored Robert E. Hamblin, a Democrat from
Hocking County, as steward. Although the newspaper acknowledged Hamblin’s “marked
efficiency, conceded integrity and intelligent judgment which characterized the performance of
his duties during his previous two terms,” the paper added, “We, in common with our party
friends, would have preferred a Republican for steward, believing that the party charged with the
administration of a trust should have one of its own number to execute it. We say this in no
partisan spirit but from a sense of duty to those Republicans who were applicants for the position
and who had a right to expect favor at the hands of their party friends.”

But once more the institution appeared to be in capable hands and Rutter’s apparent skill as a
financial administrator (which would become an issue again nearer the end of his life) was
expressed in a
Messenger item of December 2, 1880:

"The annual report of Dr. Rutter, superintendent of the Asylum for the Insane here, recently
lodged with the governor, shows that at the late close of the fiscal year, Nov. 15th, there were
633 patients in that institution, being an increase of 63 over the number with which the preceding
year closed. Despite this fact the current expenses of the asylum for the year just closed were
something over twenty thousand dollars less than the expenses of the preceding year under the
superintendency of Dr. Rutter’s predecessor.

"The health of the institution is exceptionally good."

Unfortunately for the Athens hospital, Dr. Rutter’s competence was noticed elsewhere. He
resigned on March 1, 1881, in order to accept a promotion as superintendent of Ohio’s largest
state hospital in Columbus. In so doing, he was following the same path Richard Gundry had
taken from the older, smaller facility in Athens to the newer, bigger one in Columbus. On March
10, 1881,
The Athens Messenger reprinted an item from the Columbus Sunday Herald: “Dr. H.C.
Rutter’s selection as superintendent of the Central Insane Asylum is in all respects an admirable
one. He has just that fixedness of purpose, combined with that prudence in execution, which fits
him for the control of such an institution. Even those who cherish the hope that the able and
experienced Gundry would at last be invited back to the greatest of all the state’s asylums are
abundantly satisfied with Dr. Rutter, and will rejoice in his almost assured administrative success.”

But before the actual departure of Dr. and Mrs. Rutter, Athens and its hospital pulled out all the
stops in order to honor him and his accomplishments.
The Athens Messenger of Thursday,
March 17, 1881, reported this ceremony under the headline of “Farewell presentation.”

"A special terpsichorean [dancing] entertainment was given to the patients of the Athens Asylum
for the Insane in the capacious Amusement Hall of that institution on Monday night in honor of
the anticipated departure, on the succeeding day, of Dr. and Mrs. Rutter to assume their new
and important trusts as superintendent and matron, respectively, of the Central Asylum for the
Insane at Columbus. At the conclusion of the exercises on the floor...a covered table was
brought from an adjoining apartment and placed in the center of the hall, and Rev. Jas. M.
Nourse, who had called to pay his respects to Dr. and Mrs. Rutter on the eve of their departure
from our midst, was, in hurried whispers, advised by Steward Hamblin of what was on the tapis
and requested to act on behalf of the officers and attendants of the institution in presenting to
the retiring superintendent and matron the various articles on the table and which the removal of
the cover showed to be, severally, a large heavy silver-plated, China-lined water pitcher, two
gold-lined silver goblets, a large gold-lined pail, a large silver-plated waiter, an ebony gold-
headed cane, finely and elaborately embossed and appropriately inscribed and, finally, an
elegant and finely illustrated large family Bible.

"Superintendent Rutter, who was evidently deeply moved, in his brief reply took occasion to say
that no experience of his life occasioned him more pain and regret than severing the agreeable
relations between himself and the officers, attendants and patients of the asylum."

Dr. Rutter served as superintendent of the Columbus Hospital until November 15, 1883, and
thereby completed the rounds of all the Ohio asylums ever constructed in the Kirkbride style.
Although an item in
The Athens Messenger of October 18, 1883, said he planned to work in a
private hospital in Cleveland, the
Physicians’, Dentists’ and Druggists’ Directory of Ohio of 1890
showed him back in Bellefontaine, serving as treasurer of a U.S. board for pensions. But this was
also a year of sorrow for Dr. Rutter. His wife Mattie died. Rutter remarried on July 6, 1892. His
new wife, Margaret M. Cretcher Rutter, was a resident of Bellefontaine. She was not quite eight
years younger than him.

Before long, Rutter was in charge of another public institution.
The Athens Messenger, obviously
still fond of him, reported his new appointment in its issue of August 10, 1893:

"The board of trustees of the Epileptic Asylum at Gallipolis, which met in Columbus, Monday,
elected Dr. H.C. Rutter of Bellefontaine, superintendent. Dr. Rutter is a specialist of the highest
reputation and from his long experience in the treatment and management of the insane it would
have been difficult for the board to have secured the services of a superintendent who in all
respects is so eminently and ably qualified to take charge of the institution."

The Gallipolis hospital (which would eventually become the Gallipolis Developmental Center) was
then a new facility erected for a new purpose, the segregated care of epileptic patients.
The
Messenger
of September 14, 1893, described the Gallipolis Epileptic Asylum as consisting of
five cottages built to hold fifty patients each. Another four similar buildings were still under
construction for the use of female patients. The plans were for twenty cottages in all, holding a
thousand patients. The paper reported that the Epileptic Hospital was the first of its kind in the
world.

The work apparently suited Dr. Rutter because he remained there as superintendent until 1901,
a total of 17 years. The federal census of 1900 suggested that life was good—the 57-year-old
doctor lived with his wife and 16-year-old niece in a household on the hospital grounds served
by both a cook and a chambermaid. His work at the center also led to his writing scholarly
articles on the care of patients with epilepsy.

In 1901 Rutter’s life took a new direction. He moved to Columbus and became part-owner and
medical director of a private psychiatric hospital, the Park View Sanatorium, of which the
principal owner was Dr. Charles E. Sawyer of Marion, Ohio. Located across the street from the
city’s centrally located Goodale Park, the Park View Sanatorium appeared on a postcard
stamped in 1908 as a handsome three-story mansion with a fourth-floor dormer, surrounded by
a neatly trimmed hedge and several mature trees.(7) In 2003 an inspection of the streets around
Goodale Park showed no sign of the structure. Older buildings lined two sides of the rectangular
park, a third side consisted of new buildings (built to resemble the old) and a highway cut off the
fourth side.

During this phase of his life, Rutter’s professional successes seemed to continue. In 1905 his
295-page book,
Manual of Insanity with Especial Reference to Criminal Responsibility,(8) was
published and well received. But it was during his work at the Park View Sanatorium that Dr.
Rutter’s string of professional and personal successes came to an end.

A front-page article in
The Columbus Dispatch on Sunday, September 18, 1910, told most of the
story, starting with a seven-part headline: “Noted alienist staggers dying into lobby of Cleveland
Hotel; Dr. Henly C. Rutter commits suicide in a highly dramatic manner; Worried over reverses;
Was interested in Park View Sanatorium, which recently went over to receiver; Had a brilliant
career; Served as superintendent of Gallipolis Hospital for seventeen years; Also had like
position in Columbus, Athens and Dayton state institutions.” The article read:

"Despondent over the financial losses caused by the failure of a sanatorium in which he was
interested, Dr. Henly C. Rutter, well-known alienist, for many years superintendent of the
Gallipolis Institution for Epileptics, and also of the Columbus, Dayton and Athens state hospitals,
committed suicide in Cleveland in a most dramatic manner Saturday by swallowing poison, the
nature of which has not been determined.

"Dr. Rutter, since resuming private practice, had his residence at 47 North Champion Avenue.
About three weeks ago, accompanied by his wife, he went to Cleveland to visit his nephew, C.C.
Wright, of 563 East 117th Street. Later, Dr. and Mrs. Rutter took a trip to Detroit, and returning
Friday, they engaged rooms at the Kennard House.

"Early Saturday evening he staggered into the Gillsy Hotel, and to Robert Gill, the proprietor, he
made the startling ejaculation: “I have begun to commit suicide!” Mr. Gill summoned aid and had
the man taken to Lakeside Hospital, where he died within a few minutes.
The poison was of such a subtle nature that Coroner Boesger was unable to identify it from the
symptoms.

                                    
Carefully Planned

"The suicide was evidently well and carefully planned. On Saturday morning Dr. Rutter prepared
a package which he asked the clerk at the Kennard House to weigh for mailing.  He explained
that it contained a letter of sixteen sheets. It was never mailed, however, for shortly before the
dramatic incident at the Gillsy House, Mr. Wright, the nephew, received it from the hands of a
messenger boy. The package contained Dr. Rutter’s watch, several pieces of jewelry and a note
announcing his intention to commit suicide. According to Mrs. Rutter and Mr. Wright, Dr. Rutter’s
financial troubles have been preying on his mind for months and the trip to Cleveland was taken
to afford him a change of surroundings that would aid to relieve his mental distress."

A follow-up article in the next day’s
The Columbus Dispatch, headed “Rutter funeral will be held
at Bellefontaine, O.; Services to be conducted at home of boyhood friends on Tuesday; Details
of the suicide; Columbus colleagues believe bodily more than mental ailment responsible,”
provided more details:

"The funeral of Dr. H.C. Rutter of Columbus, who committed suicide by taking poison in
Cleveland Saturday afternoon, will be held in Bellefontaine at 2 p.m. Tuesday, the body of the
deceased having been shipped there from Cleveland Sunday.

"At 3:15 Saturday afternoon several men standing at Ninth Street and Vincent Avenue N.E.,
Cleveland, saw Dr. Rutter drain the contents of a small phial. He then crossed the street to the
Gillsy Hotel, entered and sat down on a couch, telling the manager he had taken some drug by
mistake.

"As he was being placed in an ambulance to be taken to the hospital he was identified by J.G.
Bender, who had been looking for him.

"Dr. and Mrs. Rutter went from Columbus to Cleveland two weeks ago to visit Mrs. C.W. Wright,
his niece, who resided at his residence until the time of her marriage. Dr. Rutter returned home,
but went back to Cleveland last Tuesday, receiving word that his wife was ill.

"His wife had written him that she would return to Columbus, which she did, but he did not get the
letter. Thinking he would return, Mrs. Rutter remained at their home, 47 Champion Avenue, until
Thursday, when she went to Cleveland.

                                    
Told Wife of Plans

"Upon reaching the Wright home, she found that her husband had gone to Sandusky and
afterwards left for Detroit.

"Friday she received a letter from him, telling her of his purpose to take his life. He said that he
could not stand his suffering and that he intended to end all."

The article provided an alternative explanation for his suicide:

"Dr. C.O. Probst, secretary of the state board of health, a close friend of Dr. Rutter, believes that
ill health and not business matters induced him to commit the rash act.

"He said that Dr. Rutter for years had suffered great pain from an intestinal disorder.
'Dr. Rutter deserves great credit as having been one of the pioneers who freed the insane from
many of the terrible restrictions with which they had been hampered, physical restraints that
were a heritage from the old English practices,' said Dr. Probst."

In 1915 Dr. Rutter’s widow, Margaret, also died. She was buried with him and his first wife, Mattie,
in the Bellefontaine Cemetery.




                                            
Chapter Notes

1. In the 1850 federal census of Giles County, Virginia, the one-year-old Henly’s household also
included his father, John H. (50 years old), his mother, Elvinia (44), and siblings John H. (21),
Ann E. (14), Emma L. (11) and Charles C. (4).

2. See Nancy Tomes,
The Art of Asylum-Keeping: Thomas Story Kirkbride and the Origins of
American Psychiatry
, Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1994 paperback reprint of
1984 hardcover edition.

3. Richard Gundry, M.D. (1830–1891), was born in Hampstead, London, England. He moved
with his family to Simcoe, Canada, at age 15, studied medicine under Dr. Coverton of Toronto,
and graduated from Harvard Medical School in 1851. He relocated to Columbus, Ohio, in 1853,
and taught anatomy at Starling Medical College. In 1855 he became a staff physician at the
Central Insane Asylum in Columbus (which burned down in 1868). In 1857 he obtained a similar
position at the Southern Ohio Asylum at Dayton, where he served as superintendent from 1861
to 1872. At the end of his term there, Dr. Rutter was one of his assistant physicians. After the
superintendent positions in Athens and Columbus described in the text, he finished his career as
superintendent at the Maryland Hospital for the Insane at Catonsville, and as a professor at the
College of Physicians and Surgeons of Baltimore.

4. For an account of Columbus’ two state hospitals see Emil R. Pinta.
A History of Psychiatry at
the Ohio State University 1847–1993
. Columbus, Ohio: The Ohio State University Department of
Psychiatry, 1994.

5. Charles Leonard Wilson, M.D. (1831–1918), completed his career in Indianapolis, died on an
extended visit to Parkersburg, West Virginia, and was buried in the West Union Street Cemetery
in Athens.  

6. For more information on Pleasant Henry Clarke, M.D. (1846–1881), and William Henry
Holden, M.D. (1827–1888), see Charles Iams Cerney, M.D.
The Medical Chronicles of
Muskingum County Ohio 1800–2000
, a compact disc archived in the Zanesville, Ohio, public
library.

7. The card in the author’s collection was addressed to Mrs. A.L. Roach, 15 S. College St.,
Athens, Ohio, and postmarked April 20, 1908. Its sender wrote: “Dear Auntie, Your nice Easter
present came all right and I am so pleased with it. Dr. had to come down to here yesterday to
look after a case (?) for a few days so I came with him. It is a lovely day.” [unsigned]

8. H.C. Rutter.
Manual of Insanity with Especial Reference to Criminal Responsibility. Columbus,
Ohio: The Midland Publishing Co., 1905.